Grange Patrol Training Course

Alison Smith has kindly provided these images of the Grange Patrol's training questions and transcribed the text.

Alison's story of her uncle's Auxunit service is told in William Ingram and the Grange Patrol.

Jon Bealey is the first person to take the test online. Bob Millard has checked his answers so thanks to the two of them I now have a model answer sheet for anyone else who wishes to test their knowledge. Email your answers and I will let you know how well you did.




1.             Up to the present map-reading practice has consisted in giving and finding a few references and encoding and decoding these.  An increased endeavour must now be made to cope seriously with map work of a more advanced nature.  More than any other subject there is a tendency for Sections to leave this subject to one or two, and this must be rectified.  Instruction in map-reading can be obtained either from your district officer or directly on application to me.


2.             Each Auxilier should be fully cognisant of the following, and should be able to carry out practical work unaided:-


a.       Giving and taking six-figure references with speed and accuracy.

b.       Encoding and decoding references.

c.       Have knowledge of map scales, what they mean and how they are expressed, and be able to measure distances of mls, furlongs, yards on the map.

d.             To be able to take a protractor bearing, and a back bearing.

e.             To know True North, Grid North and Magnetic North, and to adjust one to the other.

f.               How to find True North by watch, compass and the stars.

g.             How to set or orientate a map in known and unknown territory.

h.             To convert compass bearings to degrees and vice versa.

i.                To set a direction by protractor, calculate compass bearing, and take actual direction by compass at night.

j.                To know what a contour is, and to be able to recognise the chief contour arrangements – hill, two-peaked hill, saddle, ravine, precipitous ridge, gorge.

k.              To determine intervisibility by taking sections.

l.                To know the meaning of gradient, and to be able to calculate gradient from the map.

m.           To know the more familiar signs on the map, particularly

the difference between    1st, 2nd. and 3rd. class roads.

-       -                -              fenced and unfenced roads.

-       -                -              public and private roads.

-       -                -              embankment and cutting on a railway.

-       -                -              road going over and under a railway.

-       -                -              coniferous and deciduous woods.

-       -                -              marsh and moorland.

-       -                -              windmill and windpump.

-       -                -              P.T. & Ŧ

-       -                -              footpath, parish, and county boundary.

n.             To be able to enlarge a section of the map, and to actually enlarge a section showing 2 mls. radius of O.B. inserting local details, eg. paths, burns, hedges, ditches, and ambush points on roads.

o.             To prepare a panorama from O.P. giving names and direction bearings of all notable features.


3.       Overpage I have drawn out a few typical questions on map-reading which might be of use for revision purposes.





1.       What is a contour?

2.       Why can two different contours not cross?

3.       When contours are very close together, what does it signify?

4.       How do you know whether a circle arrangement is a hill or a deep quarry?

5.       Sketch the contours of a hill with one side steep : a ravine : a railway going through a steep pass etc.

6.       How can you tell whether a road runs uphill or down?

7.       What does a gradient of 1 in 8 mean?

8.       A road rises from 500 ft. to 1000 ft. in 2 mls.  Calculate the gradient.

9.       What scale is 1/15840?

10.     What would the length of the side of a grid square be on a 6” to the mile map?

11.         What does < mean on a road?

12.         What is the difference between             ?          (sic)

13.         Show a road crossing under a railway.

14.         Give the map signs for a marsh : a church with a spire : a railway cutting : a public telephone box.

15.         What is True North?

16.         How would you find True North at night without a compass?

17.         What is the difference between True North and Magnetic North?

18.         What direction is 270°, 135°, 202½°, 352°, 178°, 180°?

19.         Give the number of degrees of the following directions :-

S.E., N.N.W., E.S.E., SE. by E., 9° N. of E., 10° W. of S.?

20.         The compass bearing when the protractor bearing is 135°?

21.         The straight bearing when the back bearing is 5° ; 158°?

22.         The back bearing when the straight bearing is 5° ; 158°?

23.         Why can you not set a compass at the base?

24.         What is Compass error, and how can you find it?

25.         What is the number of the map in which your area is located?

26.         What does the mark Δ signify?





In setting this trial questionnaire District Officers might endeavour to have it answered as individually as possible.  Men who do not score sufficient points should be taken separately for further instruction.


1.             What precautions must be taken in storing gelignite?

2.             What is meant by priming?

3.             What part of aircraft would you destroy to ensure the impossibility of the aircraft being serviceable?

4.             Why carry gelignite in waterproof wrappings?

5.             What is tamping a charge?

6.             What is 808?

7.             Will orange line run through the striker sleeve explode a Mill’s grenade?

8.             What must be done with a detonator before fixing on a piece of fuse?

9.             What is blast?

10.         hat is the average summer delay on a green T.P.?

11.         In the newer type of T.P. what is the additional function of the colour band?

12.         What disadvantage has the L delay?

13.         What is the purpose of the double loop of cortex or primacord on a unit charge?

14.         Why should you not store A.Ws under water?

15.         How should Bickford and orange line be joined?

16.         Can a cortex big know burst a light metal container?

17.         What effect has air space between a charge and the object?

18.         When would you use paraffin incendiaries?

19.         What weapon or weapons do you consider best against an ambushed D.R.?

20.         In laying a road ambush do you require any other men than the reception party?  If so, how many?

21.         How do you reload a pressure switch?

22.         What do you think hygroscopic means?

23.         If 4 lbs. of charge is sufficient to fell a beech what charge would be sufficient to fell a spruce of the same thickness?

24.         Does the safety pin on a T.P. lie between the sight hole and Adaptor, or between the sight hole and the soft copper tube?

25.         Why should the buster of a shrapnel mine not be primed?

26.         Set up a 1lb. charge suitably primed?

27.         Combine black incendiary and a 1lb charge – actuate by T.P.

28.         Set up 3 charges to go off simultaneously.  Actuate by L Delay.



29.         What do we mean by a gradient of 1 in 7?

30.         How would you find True North at night?

31.         Express in degrees the direction S.S.E.

32.         What is the corresponding back bearing if the straight bearing is 181°?

33.         What scale is 1/10560?

34.         How is a church with a spire shown on the map?

35.         Express the grid bearing of 135° as a compass bearing.

36.         What does intervisibility mean?

37.         How is a quarry shown on the map?

38.         Give the six figure reference of the point whose grid bearing is 198° and which is five and a quarter mile from the given centre.

39.         What arrangement of contours show a deep ravine?

40.         What is the code name of your section?

41.         What temperature should you keep your base?

42.         What is meant by bunching?

43.         What should you do when evacuating your base during enemy action?

44.         What type of information would you endeavour to send back to H.Q.?

45.         In what circumstances, if any, would you attempt to send a prisoner back?

46.         What is the last thing to do before proceeding on a patrol?

47.         When would you use your Mill’s grenades?

48.         What would you do if one of your section developed hysteria?

49.         How would you try to prevent being followed by dogs?

50.         Why would you not go to the base if you thought you were being followed?


William Ingram and the Grange Patrol

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